Beginning at the turn of the 17th century and lasting for over 200 years, the musical phenomenon of the castrati took Europe by storm. The need for voices that could handle the requirements of Baroque music explains the demand for castrati at this particular period in European history. This enthusiasm for male soprano singers who had been castrated before puberty to preserve their high voices originated in Italy. It also coincided with the development and rise in popularity of opera, where castrati were often featured performers. Composers, including Handel and Mozart, wrote music specifically for the unique voices of the castrati. Certain singers achieved international recognition for their talents. Elevated to the position of stars throughout the 18th Century, castrati raised the art of singing beyond human limits.
It was not uncommon for children to find themselves forced to join religious orders, as this would ease the financial burden on a large family. Sometimes, poor parents with a son who could sing well would have that child castrated to insure his fortune in life as well as a comfortable old age for themselves. The lavish lifestyles and occasionally extreme behavior of the castrati were a contrast to their often poor origins.
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I?m what most people might call lazy, lethargic, and a procrastinator. How did it start The first specific instance that I can remember was in 5th grade math class. I didn?t do my math. My mentality was that school consumed more then half of my waking hours and I wasn?t going to let it take anymore then that. So my assignments were partially completed, from the day before, and handed in unfinished. I knew that my parents and teachers would raise hell itself when I did this but my mind wouldn?t waiver on this. Since I had been able to get through all of grade school without homework why should I have any now Great reasoning for a 5th grader, but this thinking contained a few flaws.
To start out, there are 3 types of people in the world. The first kind will generally always try their best and be a competitor in life. They treat life as a marathon that needs a steady vigil pace to complete. The second is the person the will try to complete the absolute bear minimum to survive and occasionally misjudges what is needed done. The third and final is the person that absolutely
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One subject in society that is greatly debated is abortion. The debates are basically divided into ?Pro-Life? and ?Pro-Choice?. Pro-life supporters want abortion to be illegal and not performed anywhere. Pro-choice supporters want the choice to be up to the woman and no one else. There is no ethical way to decide between the two subjects and it?s all based on what the person?s moral values.
Abortion is the termination of an unwanted pregnancy by loss of or destruction of an egg, embryo or fetus before birth. The term of abortion is used to define the termination of a pregnancy before the fetus attains capacity for life outside the uterus. In all societies, women have for many reasons, sought to terminate pregnancies. When a woman tries to self-induce an abortion it can cause serious physical risk to a woman. Today, abortions in the early weeks of a pregnancy, by a trained practitioner and under proper conditions, can be safe medical procedure. (Americana, 1)
In no society, either in the present or the past has there been a single dominant attitude toward abortions. The Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle discussed abortion as a useful
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He Called It Rock And Roll
He Called it Rock and Roll
Alan Freed was a disc jockey pioneer in the 20th century of American radio. Freed was born in Johnstown, Pennsylvania on November 21, 1921. While attending high school in Ohio, Freed became the leader of a jazz band for the group Sultans of Swing. While in college, Freed?s interest in radio grew; as a result, he pursued his dream that would eventually lead to his famous phrase ?rock-and-roll? (Simon 2).
After World War II, Freed landed several different jobs as a radio disc jockey. He started at WKST in New Castle, Pennsylvania before moving on to WJW in Cleveland, Ohio. Freed favorite music was composed primarily by blacks. The music was branded at the time as rhythm-and-blues. During the 1950?s, racial prejudice was predominant so he decided to call the music something original. While at WJW, his show ?Moondog?s Rock?n?Roll Party? was to honor the rhythm-and-blues music that he loved (Inductee 1). With his legendary saying, he was able to get his listeners to cross ethnic lines.
In March of 1952 he promoted the ?Moondog Coronation Ball? which was held in Cleveland.
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Problems Of Knowledge
From Adams first day on earth, information and beliefs have been conveyed through and to every man to orient us in this world. It is from these beliefs and information that provide realization for our knowledge to offspring. Plato?s version of belief is concerned with the changing (especially the material world), and knowledge with the unchanging (e.g. mathematics). Other versions might suggest that we can have knowledge of our surroundings, but only when some physical thing is directly present to the mind. So knowledge is a direct relation, while belief is conceived as an indirect relation to the thing believed and the study of human knowledge is known as Epistomology. In some areas, we might say, knowledge is available, and in others it is not – or at least it is less freely available. The problems that epistemology faces revolve around the determination of the truth which all sources of knowledge fail to completely justify. Every form of knowledge whether it is gained through senses, authority, science, intuition or rationality has significant problems, which creates doubts in regards to the truth.
Descartes, a highly regarded philosopher, once argued that we cannot know something if we are unable to distinguish the
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?Abortion stops a beating heart??
?Western philosophy?s idea of the autonomous self: the pregnant woman is in fact both a person in her body and a vessel. Rather than seeing both beings as alive and interdependent?seeing life within life?and acknowledging that sometimes, nonetheless, the woman must choose her life over the fetus?s??.
Few issues have fostered such controversy as the topic of abortion. The participants in the abortion debate not only have firmly-fixed beliefs, but each group has a self-designated appellation that clearly reflects what they believe to be the essential issues. On one side, the pro-choice supporters see individual choice as central to the debate: If a woman cannot choose to terminate an unwanted pregnancy, a condition which affects her body and possibly her entire life, then she has lost one of her most basic human rights. These proponents of abortion believe that while a fetus is a potential life, its life cannot be placed on the same level with that of a woman. On the other side, the pro-life opponents of abortion argue that the fetus is human and therefore given the same human rights as the mother. Stated simply, they believe that
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Unplugging The Offensive
Unplugging the Offensive
Following the terrorist attacks on September, 11 2001, music radio suffered changes like many other aspects of life in America. Program directors at radio stations began to question the choice of songs due to their suggestive lyrics or titles. Any song that had to do with tragedy or misfortunes came under scrutiny. Clear Channel, the largest owner of radio stations, which owns ten percent of all stations in the United States, began circulating a list of 150 songs with questionable lyrics; as a result, Clear Channel attempted to decide what would be appropriate for Americans to listen to on the radio (Corporate 3).
Clear Channel is a media conglomerate which owns and controls many aspects of what you see and hear in the music world today. They operate in 65 countries, owning 1,376 radio stations, 700,000 forms of outdoor advertising, and venue promoter for hundreds of concerts every year (Corporate 1). There goal in creating the list was to sanitized American radio from offensive material. The idea to come up with a list was Clear Channel programmer Jack Evans. This list could have been created for Clear Channel to
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The population of Portugal is 10.4 million (1990 estimates). Including the Azores and the Madeira Islands. Lisbon, the capital, has 830,000 in its metropolitan area. In addition, there are 2 million Portuguese residing abroad, as emigrants or as temporary workers. Portugal strives to retain ties with Portuguese communities abroad and to protect its workers.
Most Portuguese are Roman Catholic (97%). Freedom of religion is guaranteed in the constitution.
Throughout history, Portugals coastline was populated by various cultures. Ancient Phoenicians, Carthaginians and Greeks preceded the Romans, who conquered the area in 27 B.C. Subsequently, the Visigoths and the Moors governed until the twelfth century. In 1140, Portugal became an independent nation under King Alfonso Henriques. During the 14th and 15th centuries, Portuguese explorers immensely expanded its empire. Both Spain and France ruled Portugal temporarily before the republic of Portugal was established in 1910.
From 1974-1976 Portugal underwent a nearly bloodless transition from authoritarian government to constitutional democracy. Today, Portugal is a multi-party parliamentary democracy.
The parliament is known as the Assembly of the Republic. It is unicameral and its members are elected by direct universal suffrage. Deputies serve for four years.
The 1976 Constitution was revised in 1982 and
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In this modern world there is not an absence of heroes. There are heroes in our every day society, our community and even in our homes. The problem is that we fail to acknowledge these heroes.
In our every day society there are people that protect others. Until now we embrace these heroes because of the September eleventh tragedy. I am referring to the firemen, police officers, and paramedics. We have gotten to the point in which we realized how precious these men and women are to us. They risk there lives trying to help people in distress. Day after day, they put there life on the line for our everyday citizens.
There are also heroes in our community. A great number of people help serve our community. There are volunteers that are involved in programs such as the neighborhood watch program. They try to make our community much safer for the children. There are also groups that serve the community like the Victory Outreach, Boys home, Boy/Girls Scouts. There are shelters that help homeless people by giving them food and a place to sleep. The biggest heroes that I can think of, in our
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Response To Wagner
A while back, when first dealing with the subject of music in Nazi Germany, someone raised the point that Wagner would have made a great Nazi. I questioned this statement, since I always believed artists contain an aura of humanity about them, which places them above the petty differences and ideologies of the rest of the world. As an artist, I hoped that Wagner might realize his humanity, and object to the treatment of Jewish peoples during World War II (based on the juxtaposition of Wagner in World War II Nazi Germany). Thankfully, this reading corrected my flawed assumption.
During this period in history, no Jewish state existed for people of Hebrew descent. Dishearteningly, Wagner did a good job of hammering this point home within the framework of this article. Examining the second paragraph proves this point: ?The Jew speaks the language of the nation in whose midst he dwells from generation to generation, but he speaks it always as an alien.? According to Wagner, the Jew has
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